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Citation and Referencing Guide

MLA 8th edition

Printed Books with One, Two or Multiple Authors

  • One Author

Author’s last name, First name. Italicize Title. Publishing Company, Year.

 

Example

 

Works Cited List Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011.
In-text  (Roth 19)
  • Two Authors

First author’s last name, First name and Second author's First name and Last name. Italicize Title. Publishing Company, Year.

 

Example

 

Works Cited List Landau, Robert, and John PashdagOutrageous L.A. San Francisco: Chronicle, 1984.
In-text  (Landau and Pashdag 119) [First author's Last Name and Second author's Last Name with Page Number]
  • Three or more Authors

First author’s last name, First name, et al. Italicize Title. Publishing Company, Year.

 

Example

 

Works Cited List Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009.
In-text  (Matthews et al. 12) 

 

  • No Author but Editor (s)

Editor’s last name, First name and Middle initial [if available], ed. Italicize Title. Publisher, Year.

Example

 

Works Cited List Weisser, Susan Ostrov, ed. Women and Romance: A Reader. New York UP,  2001.
In-text  (Weisser 19)

 

  • No Author but Company or Organization as Author (Impersonal Authorship)

Name of Corporate Author.Italicize Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not the first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year.

 

Example

 

Works Cited List Calgary Educational Partnership Foundation. Employability Skills: Creating My Future. Nelson, 1996.
In-text  (Calgary Educational Partnership Foundation 14)

* Year: Year of publication or Copyright date of publication.
 

Chapter, Short Story, Essay, or Article From a Book/eBook (Anthology or Collection)

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Story, Essay, or Article." Title of Book: Subtitle if Any, edited by Editor's First Name and Last Name, Edition if given and is not first, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Page numbers of the essay, article, or short story. 

Example

Works Cited List

 â€‹Hossain, Zakir. "A TEACHER-LIBRARIAN WITH A MISSION OF CREATING INFORMATION LITERATE GLOBAL CITIZENS (Chapter 14)!" In EFFECTIVE SCHOOL LIBRARIANSHIP Successful Professional Practices From Librarians Around The World (Vol. 2), edited by Patrick Lo, Heather Rogers and Dickson K.W. Chiu, Apple Academic Press, 2018. 

  Note: The first author's name listed is the author of the chapter/essay/short story.

  Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

  Note: If eBook, add library database/URL and date of access.

In-text Citation (Hossain) [Author's last name with page number-if any]

eBooks with One, Two or Multiple Authors

  • One Author from Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Name of Library Database. ULR. Date of access.

Example

Works Cited      List                  Heffron, Sean. The Skinny on Your First in College. Westport: Rand Media, 2011. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). http://suncat.csun.edu/record=b3116389. Accessed 1 Sept. 2015.
In-Text Citation  (Heffron 19) 

*same as printed books for two or multiple authors 

  • eBook From a Website

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Website Name, URL. Accessed Access Date.

Example

Works Cited List   Henty, George Alfred. The Cat of Bubastes: A Tale of Ancient Egypt. Blackie and Son, 1889. HathiTrust Digital Library, babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015073478847. Accessed 6 July 2016.
In-text Citation (Henty)

 

Journal Articles/Scholarly Articles

  • Journal Article with One Author (Printed)

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. "Title of Article." Italicize Title of Journal, vol. issue no., year, pp. page range.

Example

Works Cited List

Hossain, Zakir. "Building a learning society using library: Vietnam perspective." Asia Pacific Journal of Library and Information Science, vol. 4, no. 1, 2015, pp. 35-47.

In-text Citation (Hossain 39)
  • Journal Article with One Author (Online)

Author’s Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. "Title of Article." Italicize Title of Journal, vol. issue no., year, pp. page range. Database source, doi or url. Date of Access.

Example

Works Cited List Hossain, Zakir. "Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam." International Review of Education, vol. 62, no. 2, 2016, pp. 205-219. < Springer, https://goo.gl/Wc6WZs>. Accessed 28 Aug. 2017. 
In-text Citation (Hossain 219)
  • Journal Article From Library Database With a DOI - Two Authors

Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle if Any." Name of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. Name of Database, doi:DOI number.

Example

Works Cited List

Salafia, Elizabeth Blodgett, and Jessica Lemer. "Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School." Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 21, no. 1, 2012, pp.148-57. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9458-z. 

In-text Citation

(Salafia and Lemer 119) [First Author's Last Name and Second Author's Last Name Page Number]

  • Journal Article with One Author from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle if Any." Name of Journal, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number- Last Page Number if Given, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited.

Example

Works Cited List Elson, Peter. "A Comparative Analysis of Nonprofit Policy Network Governance in Canada." Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research, vol. 6, no. 2, 2015, pp. 42-64, anserj.ca/anser/ index.php/cjnser/article/view/201/127. Accessed 27 Jun. 2016.
In-text Citation  (Elson 44)

Website

  • Page or Document on a Website with a known Author(s)

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed access date.

Example

Works Cited List Poncelet, Barbara. "Mom Am I Fat?: Helping Your Teen Have a Positive Body Image." Verywell.com, About Inc., 20 Apr. 2016, www.verywell.com/mom-am-i-fat-3200843. Accessed 7 July 2016.
In-text Citation   (Poncelet)  [ Author's last name ]
  • Page or Document on a Website with an unknown Author(s)

"Title of Page or Document." Title of Website, Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed access date.

Example

Works Cited List "How to Teach Yourself Guitar." eHow, Demand Media, www.ehow.com/how_5298173_teach-yourself-guitar.html. Accessed 24 June 2016.
In-text Citation         ("How to Teach Yourself Guitar")    [ Title of Page or Document ]
  • Government Document From a Website

Title of Document: Subtitle if Given. Edition if given and is not first edition, Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee, Publication Date, URL. Accessed Access Date.

Example

Works Cited List Highlights from the Competition Bureau’s Workshop on Emerging Competition Issues. Competition Bureau of Canada, 4 Mar. 2016, www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/vwapj/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf/$FILE/cb-Workshop-Summary-Report-e.pdf. Accessed 6 July 2016.
In-text Citation (Highlights)  [Note: You can use a shortened form of the title by listing the first word or words of the full title.]

Social Media

  • Facebook Post

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post. Facebook, Day Month Year of Post, Time of Post, URL. Accessed Day Month Year post was viewed.

Example

Works Cited List

Rick Mercer Report. Spread the Net Challenge Winners 2016. Facebook, 23 Mar. 2016, 9:00 a.m., www.facebook.com/rickmercerreport. Accessed 26 June 2017. 

In-text Citation (Rick Mercer Report)
  • Twitter Post

Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). "The entire tweet word-for-word. " Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.

Example

Works Cited List

@ReallyVirtual (Sohaib Athar). "Helicopter hovering above Abbottad at 1AM is a rare event." Twitter, 4 Jan. 2017, 3:58p.m. twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.

In-text Citation  (@ReallyVirtual)   [Twitter handle]
  • Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Blog Post." Italicize Name of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Accessed Day Month Year blog was visited.

Example

Works Cited List

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology, Scientific American Blogs, 27 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/. Accessed 28 June 2017.

In-text Citation (Naish)  [Author's last name]
  • Youtube & Vimeo

Last Name, First Name of video creator or Username of Creator. "Title of Video." Italicize Title of the Hosting Website, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of video. Accessed Day Month Year video was viewed.

Example

Works Cited List

Sethi, Ramit. "How to Write a Winning Resume, With Ramit Sethi." YouTube, 23 June 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0fjkKCsM1w. Accessed 28 June 2017.

In-text Citation

(Sethi) [Last Name of Video Creator]

Interview

  • Interview (In Person)

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Description of Interview. Day Month Year of interview. Personal Interview.

Example

Works Cited List

Myers, Elizabeth. The Dangers of Violence in the Media. 12 Mar. 2017. Personal Interview.

In-text Citation     (Myers)  [ Last Name of Person who was interviewed]
  • Personal Interview (Telephone/Skype)

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Description of Interview. Day Month Year of interview. Telephone Interview/Skype.

Example

Works Cited List Myers, Elizabeth. The Dangers of Violence in the Media. 12 Mar. 2017. Telephone Interview/Skype.
In-text Citation (Myers)  [Last Name of Person who was interviewed]
  • Personal Interview (Email/mail)

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. "Subject Line of Email." Received by Name of Person Who Received Email. Day Month Year of Email. Email Interview.

Example

Works Cited List Smith, Paula. "Re: Food and Family." Received by Joseph Tan. 20 May 2016. Email Interview.
In-text Citation (Smith) 

Wikipedia

  • Wikipedia Entry

"Title of Entry." Italicize Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Day Month Year entry was last modified, Time entry was last modified, URL of entry. Accessed Day Month Year Wikipedia entry was last viewed.

Example

Works Cited List "Body Image." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 16 June 2016,7:41 pm, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_image. Accessed 28 June 2017.        
In-text Citation ("Body Image")    ["Title of Entry"]

*Anyone can directly cite a Wikipedia right from the entry/page. In the left side menu under "Tools", press "Cite this page". This will link to something like Cite This Page - Wikipedia

Newspaper/Magazine Article

  • Article from a Newspaper with a known Author (Printed/Online)

Author's last name, First name and Middle initial. "Title of Article." Italicize Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year of publication, page number(s). 

Example (Printed)

Works Cited List

Ashenmacher, Will. "Reversing the Sands of Time: After Years of Neglect and Abuse, Park Point's Dune Ecosystem is Making a Comeback Thanks to the Work of Volunteers." Duluth News-Tribune, 31 May 2008, p. 1A.

In-text Citation (Ashenmacher)   [Author's Last Name]

Example (Online)

Author's last name, First name and Middle initial. "Title of Article." Italicize Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the database, Online Source such as a url/ doi, Date of Access.

Works Cited List Hossain, Zakir. "Libraries still critical in Google age." Viet Nam News, 9 November 2013, https://vietnamnews.vn/opinion/247431/libraries-still-critical-in-google-age.html#MwltmeWEt9WvlCm8.97, 9 October 2018.
In-text Citation   (Hossain)

 

Artwork from a Book, Online Source, Museum or Personal captured

Artwork from a Book

When you refer to a photographic reproduction of an artwork, the citation is made up of two parts:

  • Part 1: Lists the original artist's name, the name of the work, and the date the work was created. 
  • Part 2: Cites where you found the reproduction of the work such as a book. The example below is for an image taken from a book with a single author.

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. Book Title, by Author's Last Name, First Name, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, p. number.

Example

Works Cited List              da Vinci, Leonardo. Last Supper. 1498, Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan. Great Paintings of the Western World, by Gallup, Alison, et al., Barnes & Noble, 1998, p. 223. 
In-text Citation (da Vinci 223)

Artwork from an Online Source

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. "Title of Webapge," by Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of publication or last modified date, URL. Accessed access date.

Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site.

Example

Works Cited List da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). 1503, Musee Du Louvre, Paris. "Mona Lisa". Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa. 25 Oct. 2018.

In-text Citation          
(da Vinci)

If you place the artwork in your paper, you must label the figure. The caption should be the Works Cited list citation for the source the figure was found in. For example, if it was found on a website, cite the website. 

Label your figures starting at 1 such as "Fig. 1. "

Information about the figure (the caption) is placed directly below the image in your assignment.

Example:

Fig. 1. Leonardo da VinciMona Lisa (La Gioconda), 1503.

Photograph from museum/collection

Last Name, First Name. Photograph Title. Year Created. Medium. Museum/Collection Name, City.

Example

Works Cited List da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda). 1503. Oil on poplar panel. Musee Du Louvre, Paris. 
In-text Citation (da Vinci)

Personally taken photograph

Last Name, First Name. “Photograph Title/Description.” Year Created. Digital File Type.

Example

Works Cited List Hossain, Zakir. "Karl-Marx-Monument in Chemnitz, Germany." 18 Oct., 2018. JPEG.
In-text Citation (Hossain)

For a photograph that you took, if it is a digital photograph, cite it as you would a digital file. Cite yourself as the photographer. Include the title or description, along with a period, in quotation marks. State the year you took the photograph and a period. Complete the citation by stating the file extension of the photograph (e.g. JPEG file, GIF file, PNG file).

Source: Colombia College, Vancouver, Canada <http://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/mla/images#figure > and MLA Hand Book 8th Ed.

Poem/Poetry

Rule 1: When citing 2-3 lines of poetry, insert a "/" between the lines.

Example: Reflecting on the "incident" in Baltimore, Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all that I remember" (page number-if any).

 

Rule 2: When citing long sections (more than three lines) of poetry, keep formatting as close to the original as possible.

 

For example: In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:

 

The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.

We Romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not 
unfrown itself. (page number-if any).

 

Rule 3: When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem:

 

For example: In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:

 

The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing ...
(page number-if any).

 

 

Material Type In-text Citation Works Cited
Poem from an anthology (various authors)

(Shakespeare 1-4)

Shakespeare, William. “That Time of Year (Sonnet 73).” The Indian River Reader: Custom Compilation for ENC 1101, edited by Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell, Anthony C. Winkler, Joseph F. Trimmer, and Mark Connelly. Cengage Learning, 2017, pp. 135-6.

Poem from a collection (works from the same author)

(Szymborska 16-21)

Szymborska, Wislawa. “Moment.” Monologue of a Dog. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2005, pp.11-13.

Poem from a website (Internet, available to everyone)

(Shakespeare 5-8)

 

Shakespeare, William. “Sonnet 73: That time of year thou mayest in me behold.” Poetry Foundation, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45099/sonnet-73-that-time-of-year-thou-mayst-in-me-behold.
Poem by an anonymous poet

(Anonymous 11-12)

 

Anonymous. “Barbara Allan”. Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by Robert DiYanni, 6th ed., McGraw Hill, 2007, pp. 1056-7.
Part of a book from an online database (poem, chapter, essay, piece) (Denham 1-8)

 

Denham, John. “Cooper's Hill.": The Poetry of Sir John Denham, Portable Poetry, 2017, pp. 3-11. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), http://db12.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1450455&site=ehost-live.

 

Note: For poems, cite the line(s) of the poem, rather than the page number in the in-text citation.

Source: MLA Hand Book (8th ed.), IRSC Libraries <http://irsc.libguides.com/c.php?g=483085&p=5887103> and Purdue Writing Lab <https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_quotations.html>